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Social issues in a society affect adversely its growth and peaceful existence by damaging the social and cultural relationships. There are plenty of social issues that country like India faces and the main social issues are gender discrimination, racism, female infanticide, inequality, communalism, child labour, child marriage, corruption, illiteracy, poverty, etc. There is no country in the world that does not face problem, especially social issues and India is not different. But we consider the planet as whole global warming; climate change, deforestation, terrorism, plastic explosion, population explosion and racism are considered as a few issues. India is a diverse country with people from various walks of life with different cultured backgrounds. India is a country with a number of states and union territories made up of people following 9 main religious and speaking more than 22 languages across the length and breadth of the country.
There are a number of causes of social problems like unemployment, poverty, rapid population growth, urbanization, lack of education, superstitious beliefs, gender discrimination, cast discrimination, lack of guidance to youngsters etc.
Solution of social problem is to be found in the problem itself. Social problems refer to any undesirable condition that is opposed either by the whole society or by a section of the society.
Society itself can solve social issues. These issues actually form a barrier to the progress of community and hence we should strive together to cease them. If we cannot unit against them, these issues will continue to grow and reach beyond our control. It can be solved only through mass awareness, consciousness, education, humanity and positive attitudes.
Land is unique as it is immovable and its value depends on location, utility, classification etc. Its demand keeps increasing with growing population, while its supply is limited. Kerala, comparing with the other states of India, is densely populated one and the land as a whole deemed to be scare even to provide ample accommodations to its people. The scarcity of affordable housing in urban areas drives the urban poor to live in slums or unauthorised colonies. These slum dwellers do not have clear title or any ownership right over such land.
Land ownership is determined through various records like sale deeds, Record of right (ROR), taxpaying document, survey records etc. However land titles often are unclear due to various reasons such as legacy issues gaps in the legal frame work and poor administration of land records. This has led to several legal disputes related to ownership. Such disputes have highlighted the relevance of having clear land titles and a well organised land records system. Certain study in this field shows that land related disputes account for two-thirds of all pending court cases in the country. These land disputes include those related to the validity of land titles and records, and rightful ownership. The study also shows that land dispute on average take about 10 years to be resolved and it adds to the burden of the courts tie up.
Under the Registration Act 1908, registration of property is not mandatory for all transactions. It includes acquisition of land by Government, Court decrees, heir ship partitions etc. Since heir ship partitions do not require registration, several property divisions are not recorded and hence do not correctly reflect who is in possession of the land. This often leads litigation related to rightful owner among heirs.
Poor maintenance of land records has led to inaccuracy in the ownership of land. In the past, states have neglected updating the records through surveys. Sketches have not been used to establish actual boundaries on the ground. This has resulted in the spatial records not matching with textual records. Discrepancy between spatial and textual records also arises because of transfer and partition of land, either though inheritance or sale not captured through surveys.
The information related to land is usually documented and maintained primary across three departments.
1.Registration Department, is responsible for registrations of transfer documents and collections of stamp duty.
2.Revenue Department is responsible for maintaining the ROR and mutation register. It also maintains tax register for collection or revenue on land.
3.Survey and Land Records Department. maintains spatial data and executes surveys to collect land related data and update the maps or sketch.
This Project Report will help you communicate the status of your project, to your staff and stakeholders.Project Reports enable you to keep people regularly informed of the progress of the project and to raise any items for their attention. This Project Status Report enables you to tell your team whether the project is on track and likely to finish within schedule.
Acquisition of land for a project usually results displacement of habitation, loss of business establishments, shrinking employment opportunities and even lively hood of affected people. Social impact assessment is a process of identification, analysis and management of the gravity in social impacts both positive and negative. The role of Social Impact Assessment is to act as an instrument which helps to assess and determine the implications of land acquisition on the affected community and people. It minimises the risks involved in displacement, rehabilitation, compensation and resettlement and thereby the acquiring agency can plan the entire procedures with saving of cost, time etc.
The Right to Fair Compensation and Transparency in Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Act, 2013 is one of the reforms in the area of land governance. As per the provisions of this Act, it is mandatory to carry out a Social Impact Assessment study and to prepare a Social Impact Management Plan for acquisition of land by Government for its own use or by public-private- partnership projects for public purpose. The overall objectives of this study, is to make land acquisition process participatory, humane and transparent. It also stipulates that the SIA study shall justify or demonstrate the following things, among others.
a. Whether land proposed for acquisition serves public purpose.
b. Whether the extent of land under proposal of acquisition is the absolute bare minimum.
c. Whether land acquisition at an alternative place has been considered and found not feasible.
d. Whether overall potential benefits of the project outweighs the social impacts and assessment cost .
e. Estimate the number of families likely to be affected and displaced.
f. Assess movable or immovable properties likely to be affected.